Encephalitis And Its Causes

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Encephalitis is Inflammation or swelling of the brain.

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome

Acute means having a sudden onset

It’s referred to as syndrome because, the many causative agents that cause encephalitis exhibit similar group of symptoms, consistently and hence grouped and reported under AES.

Children and Elderly people are at risk of developing severe illness which can be fatal.

Causes of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome:

  1. Japanese Encephalitis
  2. Non Japanese Encephalitis 
  • Enteroviral Encephalitis
    • Polio
    • Non Polio
      • Coxsackie A & B
      • Echo virus
  1. Herpes
  2. Varicella
  3. Dengue
  4. Malaria
  5. Protozoal
  6. Syphilis
  7. Trypanosomiasis
  8. Acute TB meningitis
  9. Bacterial
  10. Fungal
  11. Toxins

Symptoms of Encephalitis:

  1. High fever 
  2. Headache
  3. Sensitivity to light 
  4. Drowsiness
  5. General discomfort
  6. Body ache

Danger signs of Encephalitis:

  1. Fever along with
  • Lethargy
  • Convulsions
  • Unconsciousness
  • Paralysis
  • Rash
  • Enlarged Liver
  • Enlarged Spleen

2. Hypotension

3. Feeble thready pulse

4. Breathing difficulty

5. Condition not managed by administration of oxygen.

Japanese Encephalitis:

Most of the cases in south Asia and India are attributed to JE Virus and most common cause of viral encephalitis, caused after bitten by infected mosquitoes.

It is advised by WHO (World Health Organisation ) that JE Vaccines must be incorporated into National Immunisation Schedule.

Management of Encephalitis:

Management of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome is essentially symptomatic and treatment of the specific cause, if found. Call your local emergency number if you notice any danger signs.

  • Fever is managed by Sponging and Paracetamol
  • Convulsion by anti-convulsants
  • IV fluids
  • Correction of Blood Sugar
  • Use of Mannitol
  • Pulse , BP, Respiratory rate monitoring .

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