Echocardiography or Echo

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Cardiac imaging has significantly improved with this non-invasive tool, especially more so in critical care setting using portable Echocardiography machine.


Its gives instantaneous assessment of

• Myocardium
• Valves
• Pericardium
• Great vessels

What is 2 Dimensional Echocardiography?

It uses the Principle of Ultrasound reflection off cardiac structures to produce images of the heart.

Ultrasound frequency used in clinical practice is between 2.5 and 5.0 MHz. Ultrasound passes readily through liquid, such as blood and pericardial fluid, and these are displayed as black on a two dimensional image.

Velocity of moving red blood cells, can be measured using Doppler Echocardiography. It uses ultrasound reflecting off moving red blood cells. It measures normal and abnormal flow patterns can be measured non-invasively.

Color Flow Doppler imaging displays the blood velocities in real time, superimposed upon a two dimensional echocardiographic image.

The different colors indicate the direction of the blood flow (Blue towards and red away from the transducer) with green color superimposed when there is turbulent flow.

Posterior structures of heart, like left atrium, mitral valve and aorta can be visualized by transesophagael echocardiography.

Clinical Uses of Echocardiography:

Two Dimensional Echocardiography:

• Cardiac cambers

1. Camber size
2. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
3. Regional wall motion abnormalities

• Valve

1. Morphology and motion

Doppler Echocardiography:

1. Valve Stenosis
2. Valve Regurgitation

Stress Echocardiography:

• Myocardial Ischemia

Transesophageal Echocardiography:

1. Infective Endocarditis
2. Aortic Disease

Table of Contents


1.By Patrick J. Lynch and C. Carl Jaffe –, CC BY 2.5,
Public Domain,

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